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Swallow Identification Tips

How to Identify Swallows, Swifts and Martins

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Swallow Flock

Look for visual clues to help identify swallows.

Steve Voght

Swallows are some of the most elegant and graceful birds in the world, and their aerobatic flight can be amazing to watch. Unfortunately for birders, however, that swift flight also poses challenges to proper swallow identification, but by knowing what specific clues to look for, it is possible to accurately identify swallows.

Swallow Identification Equipment

To properly identify swallows, swifts and martins, the proper equipment is necessary.

  • Binoculars: High-quality birding binoculars that offer a wide field of view are best for swallow identification. Lenses that resist or eliminate glare are also recommended so birders can follow the action of swallows in the air without being blinded by changing lighting.

  • Camera: A good quality camera with high-speed focus and a high shutter speed can help birder-photographers capture images of the swallows they see for later identification. A good zoom is also useful for photographing birds at a distance.

  • Field Guide: A field guide that shows swallows both perched and at different flight angles will be most useful for swallow identification. Because these birds move so quickly, multiple flight shots can help birders make suitable visual comparisons to identify the birds they see.

  • Hat: While a hat will not help outright with bird identification, a comfortable birding hat with a wide brim can help protect birders from the sun and glare while viewing swallows, allowing for longer, more satisfying looks that can lead to proper identification.

Identifying Swallows by Sight

Many swallow, swift and martin species can look similar at a glance, and it is necessary to discern subtle clues to accurately identify each bird. When identifying swallows, look for…

  • Color: Is the bird's plumage iridescent or dull? Are the underparts and upperparts different colors? How sharp is the contrast on different body parts?

  • Head: Are any markings visible? Is the forehead, crown, cheeks, throat or nape a different or distinct color?

  • Wings: How long are the bird's wings? Are they more tapered or rounded? How broad are the wings compared to their length? What angle are the wings held at in a glide?

  • Tail: How long is the tail? Is it straight, notched or forked? Does it have long streamers? Are there any spots, streaks or other markings visible?

  • Rump: What color is the bird's rump? Are there patches of color on the sides of the rump? Is the rump visible in flight, when the bird is perched or both?

While swallows are relatively small and move quickly, it is often possible to successfully identify the swallow species just by noting a few field marks or other clues in its appearance.

Other Ways to Identify Swallows

Along with field markings, other characteristics about swallows, swifts and martins can be substantial clues to their identity.

  • Range and Habitat: The location a bird is seen in is a great indicator of its species. Compare the season the bird is seen to its geographic location and note the type of habitat – open fields, woodlands, lakesides, etc. – to better determine which species it is.

  • Sounds: Many swallows sound similar and solitary birds can be hard to hear, but if a swallow colony is found the variety of sounds can be used to help with proper identification.

  • Nest Construction: Swallows build very distinctive nests and seeing that nest construction can be an instant confirmation of a particular species. Check for cavity-nesting or open nesting birds, nesting materials, man-made nesting structures and other clues for swallow identification.

  • Flocks: While swallows can blend together in mixed flocks, large flocks of one species are most common. Instead of getting frustrated trying to identify a single bird, watch multiple birds for different identity clues that will either confirm a species or make an unusual guest stand out.

Identifying swifts, swallows and martins can be a challenge, but with practice any birder can become familiar with their local species and easily learn to identify them properly.

Still not sure what swallow you’ve seen? Submit your bird photos for identification help!

Photo – Swallow Flock © Steve Voght

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