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20 Fun Facts About Wild Turkeys

Wild Turkey Trivia


Wild Turkey

How much do you know about these great gobblers?

Michael Woodruff

Wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) can be wild fun when you consider how unique and incredible these birds really are. While most birders and non-birders alike can easily recognize the distinctive plumage, large tails, bare heads and gobbling call of these game birds, how much do you really know about them? These wild turkey facts might surprise you!

  1. Due to overhunting and deforestation that eliminated wild turkeys’ habitat, these birds were nearly extinct in the 1930s. Today, there are more than 7 million wild turkeys and their range is spread throughout North America. (See the wild turkey range map.)

  2. There are approximately 5,500 feathers on an adult wild turkey, including 18 tail feathers that make up the male's distinct fan.

  3. There are five distinct subspecies of wild turkeys: Eastern, Osceola, Rio Grande, Merriam’s and Gould’s. Subtle plumage differences and different ranges distinguish the birds. In some classifications, a sixth subspecies - the south Mexican wild turkey - is also recognized.

  4. Wild turkeys have very powerful legs and can run at speeds up to 25 miles per hour. Their top speed in flight is 55 miles per hour. Domestic birds, on the other hand, are bred to be heavier so they provide more meat and therefore cannot fly.

  5. These birds are omnivorous and will try many different foods. Most of their diet is grass and grain, but wild turkeys have a varied diet and will also eat insects, berries and small reptiles.

  6. The average lifespan of a wild turkey is 3-5 years, and the oldest known wild turkey lived to be at least 13 years old. Domestic birds bred for food only live a few months.

  7. In the wild, turkeys range from 5-20 pounds. Domestic turkeys are specially bred to be heavier and could weigh twice as much as their wild cousins.

  8. Because it is a native bird with a proud demeanor and protective instincts, the wild turkey was Benjamin Franklin’s preference for the national bird, not the bald eagle that is more of a scavenger and will rob other birds and animals for prey.

  9. A wild turkey’s gobble can be heard up to one mile away and is a primary means for a tom to communicate with his harem.

  10. Adult male turkeys are called toms and females are called hens. Very young birds are poults, while juvenile males are jakes and juvenile females are jennies. A group of turkeys is called a rafter or a flock.

  11. The wild turkey is one of only two birds native to North America that has been regularly domesticated, and domestic wild turkeys are raised all over the world. The other North American bird often bred for food is the Muscovy duck.

  12. Alaska and Hawaii are the only two states without extensive wild turkey populations.

  13. The wild turkey’s bald head and fleshy facial wattles can change color in seconds with excitement or emotion. The birds’ heads can be red, pink, white or blue.

  14. Wild turkeys see in color and have excellent daytime vision that is three times better than a human’s eyesight and covers 270 degrees, but they have poor vision at night.

  15. Just hatched wild turkeys are precocial, which means they are born with feathers and can fend for themselves quickly, and they leave the nest within 24 hours to forage for food with their mothers. The male turkeys have very little to do with raising chicks.

  16. Wild turkeys were first domesticated in Mexico and then exported to Europe. European settlers brought domesticated turkeys back to the New World with them as colonists, but would also hunt the wild birds they found.

  17. The first unofficial presidential pardons were granted to domestic turkeys in 1947, and since then every president has “pardoned” two birds (a presidential turkey and a vice presidential turkey) before Thanksgiving.

  18. June is National Turkey Lovers’ Month and promotes eating turkey at times other than major holidays, since turkey meat is low in fat and high in protein, making it healthier than many other meats. Because turkeys can be so large, they are also more affordable than many other available meats.

  19. The average American eats 18 pounds of turkey every year, and more turkeys are consumed on Thanksgiving than on Christmas and Easter combined.

  20. The wild turkey is the official game bird of Alabama, Massachusetts and South Carolina. Though they may not be designated as official game birds in other states, wild turkeys are widely hunted - in fact, are the most hunted of all birds.

Photo – Wild Turkey Gobbling © Michael Woodruff

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